Post feature: Front-end

Now that you have implemented the GraphQL API, let’s implement the front-end implementation.

  • The menu list on the left and the section showing the post is called Sidebar. (Sideber.js)
  • The portion of the Post list on the right displays the following components depending on the function selected in Sidebar
    • Global Timeline: Posts from all users (AllPost.js)
    • Profile: Posts from a specific user(PostsBySpecifiedUser.js)
  • Routing which components to display with App.js

Installing Required Libraries

Install the necessary libraries to build the front.

npm install --save @material-ui/core @material-ui/icons moment react-router react-router-dom


Copy the following code and replace /src/App.js with it.

  • App.js (2 kb)
  • The points are as follows:

    function App() {
      const classes = useStyles();
      return (
        <div className={classes.root} >
          <ThemeProvider theme={theme}>
            <CssBaseline />
                <Route exact path='/' component={AllPosts} />
                <Route exact path='/global-timeline' component={AllPosts} />
                <Route exact path='/:userId' component={PostsBySpecifiedUser}/>
                <Redirect path="*" to="/" />
    • Routing process using react-router
      • HashRouter
      • This time you use HashRouter to take advantage of the browser’s back function within a static site or to access certain components directly from outside
      • e.g.
      • Switch: If one of the Route matches, only renders it (without Switch, all matching components is rendered)
      • Route
      • Render and display the AllPosts component when / or /global-timeline is accessed
      • /:userId matches when accesses such as /userA, renders and displays the PostsBySpecifiedUser component, and passes :userId as a Parameter
        • If you write Route of /:userId on Route of /global-timeline, it matches /:userId first, so global- timeline is not displayed
    • ThemeProvider: Material-UI class, which sets the CSS theme for the entire application

    There are three main roles of Sidebar.

    • Logout button display
    • Menu features such as switching to Global Timeline and Profile
    • Post interface (text field and button)

    First, create the src/containers directory and Sidebar.js.

    mkdir src/containers
    touch src/containers/Sidebar.js

    Copy the contents of Sidebar.js below and replace ./src/containers/Sidebar.js with it.

    Let’s look at the points of this code.

    Handling TextField Input Values Using React Hooks

    const [value, setValue] = React.useState ('');
    • State management can be achieved using useState hook.
    • value manages the content of Posts entered with TextField
    • value can be updated with setValue
    • When value created using useState is updated by setValue, the component referencing value is re-rendered.

    In this workshop, we do not explain in detail about React Hooks or React state management. For more information about useState, see here.

    <ListItem key='post-input-field'>
      <ListItemText primary={
          label="Type your post!"
      } />
    • Passes the value state you just created to the TextField input value.
    • If the input value of a TextField is changed by user, the handleChange function passed in onChange={handleChange} is called.
    const handleChange = event => {
        setHelperText(MAX_POST_CONTENT_LENGTH -;
      } else {
    • When handleChange is called from a TextField component, information such as a new input value is passed as an argument.
    • Update a new TextField value to value state using setValue (
    • Verifying that there are no more than 140 characters.

    Running createPost Mutation

    import { createPost } from '../graphql/mutations';
      const onPost = async () => {
        const res = await API.graphql(graphqlOperation(createPost, { input: {
          type: 'post',
          content: value,
    • If you execute amplify mock api or amplify push, the code for GraphQL Operation such as createPost is generated at ./src/graphql.
    • Using the generated createPost, the onPost method performs the Post-creation Mutation.
    • The value of the TextField stored in the value state is used.
    • If mutation succeeds, setValue ('') sets the TextField value to an empty string.

    Sign-Out Functionality Implementation

    import Auth from '@aws-amplify/auth';
      const signOut = () => {
          .then(data => console.log(data))
          .catch(err => console.log(err));
    • Sign-out implementation uses the Auth module.
    • When sign-out is performed, withAuthenticator detects that it is no longer in the sign-in state and returns to the sign-in screen.


    You create a UI for displaying all Posts.

    touch src/containers/AllPosts.js

    Copy the contents of AllPosts.js below and replace ./src/containers/AllPosts.js with it.

    Let’s look at the points of the code.

    Fetch Posts for all users in chronological order

    const getPosts = async (type, nextToken = null) => {
      const res = await API.graphql(graphqlOperation(listPostsSortedByTimestamp, {
        type: "post",
        sortDirection: 'DESC',
        limit: 20, //default = 10
        nextToken: nextToken,
      dispatch({ type: type, posts: })
    • List all user’s posts in descending order of timestamp using ListPostsSortedByTimestamp you have created in 3.2.
    • You can control the number of records fetched with limit parameter. You have acquired 20 records this time, and the default is 10 records.
    • nextToken is a token that is set when there are the next 20 records of fetched data. By specifying NextToken, it is possible to fetch the next 20 records in descending order of timestamp.

    Subscription: Retrieving a New Post in Real Time

    useEffect(() => {
      const subscription = API.graphql(graphqlOperation(onCreatePost)).subscribe({
        next: (msg) => {
          console.log('allposts subscription fired')
          const post =;
          dispatch({ type: SUBSCRIPTION, post: post });
      return () => subscription.unsubscribe();
    }, []);
    • Use useEffect Hook to describe the process after the Component’s mount is completed. (see more about useEffect)
    • Issuing a subscription and whenever createPost Mutation is called, the Arrow Function passed to .subscribe is executed.
    • By returning Arrow Function to unsubscribe, the Subscription gets closed when the Component is unmounted.


    You create a UI for displaying a list of the Posts for a specific user.

    touch src/containers/PostsBySpecifiedUser.js

    Copy the contents of PostsBySpecifiedUser.js below and replace ./src/containers/PostsBySpecifiedUser.js with it.

    const getPosts = async (type, nextToken = null) => {
      const res = await API.graphql(graphqlOperation(listPostsBySpecificOwner, {
        owner: userId,
        sortDirection: 'DESC',
        limit: 20,
        nextToken: nextToken,
      dispatch({ type: type, posts: })
    • Using listPostsBySpecificOwner to set owner to userId taken from URI parameter


    You create a UI to display the Post list passed from AllPosts.js or PostsBySpecifiedUser.js.

    mkdir src/components
    touch src/components/PostList.js

    Copy the contents of PostList.js below and replace ./src/components/PostList.js with it.

    In this workshop, the components using useState to manage state are under ./src/containers, otherwise under ./src/components.

    Checking the File Configuration

    If you check the current directory structure with the tree command, it looks like this:

    ├── App.css
    ├── App.js
    ├── App.test.js
    ├── aws-exports.js
    ├── components
    │   └── PostList.js
    ├── containers
    │   ├── AllPosts.js
    │   ├── PostsBySpecifiedUser.js
    │   └── Sidebar.js
    ├── graphql
    │   ├── mutations.js
    │   ├── queries.js
    │   ├── schema.json
    │   └── subscriptions.js
    ├── index.css
    ├── index.js
    ├── logo.svg
    ├── serviceWorker.js
    └── setupTests.js


    • PostList.js is under components directory.
    • AllPosts.js, PostsBySpecifiedUser.js, Sidebar.js are under the containers directory.


    Subscription is currently not available with Amplify Mocking. Let’s see these changes applied in the cloud. (It takes a few minutes to run)

    amplify push

    If $amplify mock api is running, use Ctrl+C to stop the execution of the command. Now let’s check if the UI implementation is working well. If $ npm start is not running, run it again.

    • Make sure that Post functionality in SideBar works
    • Make sure that you can LOGOUT
    • Open multiple web browsers, log in with another user and post (even if the same email address, you can create multiple users by changing Username)
    • Profile shows only your own Posts